OpenVPN allows client computers to tunnel into a server over a single UDP or TCP port securely. This HOWTO article is a step-by-step guide that explains how to create the server and client OpenVPN configuration files that makes this possible. In the process this article explains how to create the public key infrastructure (PKI) so that a client can securely communicate with the server. OpenSSL is the foundation for the security functionality of OpenVPN.
For this tutorial you will need the following software: OpenVPN. You can download the latest version of OpenVPN from https://openvpn.net/index.php/open-source/downloads.htmlEasyRSA is the tool people use to create the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) for OpenVPN. Download the latest release of EasyRSA from https://github.com/OpenVPN/easy-rsa/releases. There is not installation required. Extract the contents of the archive into a folder.
OpenVPN is available on various platforms. The generation of the configuratio…
The internet is not a secure place. If you’re not aware of this fact just google “computer security stories” or “data breaches” and click on the first few links that come up.
All content on the internet needs to be secured. This article focuses on the secure transmission of data between your browser and the website that you are connected to. This is known as Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS). In order to secure communications certificates are used to encrypt data between you and the web site. A Certificate Authority (CA) is an entity that can issue, renew and manage these certificates.
Take a situation in which you are interacting with your bank via its web site. You expect: that:
The transactions, balances and other information from the banks IT systems are for your eyes only and no one can intercept these transmissions by introducing themselves between your bank’s computer and your device. This is known as the man-in the-middle attack;No one can manipulate the internet tra…
LIDL occasionally discounts products. This may be because a product is nearing the best-before date, to clear slow moving goods or maybe because the item’s packaging has been damaged. The sticker below is from LIDL's mixed salad
The sticker tells the consumer the original price, the percentage discount and the discounted price. The consumer also gets to know how much he or she is saving per kilo of that product.
The shortcoming of LIDL’s system is that the barcode of the discounted product is the same as that of its undiscounted equivalent. On many occasions the undiscounted product is concurrently on sale. This means that when the cashier scans the barcode, LIDL’s system has no way of differentiating between the differently priced products and the cashier has to manually intervene to mark down the product.
LIDL operate a high efficiency system. Cash points are opened or closed depending on the number of customer waiting at the checkout. When not at the till employees are stacking …